»On Emperors order,
the Pope will
purge the centuries« Leo
Vercelli 998 to Gregory V.
Not a single date of the Greek and Roman Antiquity can be confirmed with independent methods! - Or should you know one?
Unbelievable? In fact, an ever increasing number of contradictions between datable events and traditional chronology was found over the centuries. Today, a multitude of conjectures has to support historiography. The latter remained unaffected, because the critics were not able to offer acceptable explanations for all the incongruities.
Now, there is rock-solid evidence (see below). So things change. Strange records begin to make sense!
Possibly, the disorder of our history has started with the keen decision of a single person. [more...]
- Claudius Ptolemy had forged the longitudes within the Almagest by 7,5°;
- Earth's temperature followed the increase of CO2 with a delay of 1200 years;
- Empress Egditha had been nourished mainly on fish...
How was it possible to spoil Chronology?
As the Greek astronomer Hipparchos measured, the bright Star Spica had moved some 2° since the observations of his predecessor Timocharis - about 200 years ago, due to Hipparchos. This span was too big - by an Exeligmos of 54 years. However, referring to solar and lunar eclipses, Hipparchos could not discover his mistake...
Eventually, Claudius Ptolemy adopted the error¹. In addition, he had no knowledge of the equinoctial migration. After all, he presumed Hipparchos, likewise, had made his observations at Alexandria. Altogether, Ptolemy's misapprehensions reduced the virtual span since Hipparchos' measurements by 299 years.
However, a set of well recorded astronomical events, unique within history, allows to correct the displacement of Ptolemy. Various prior attemps had failed, to join events dated with Ptolemy's model unambiguously with other periodical references. Instead, chronists were blamed for neglectfulness. Ptolemy was accused to be a plagiator.
How was the break within chronology communicated?
The legendary recovery of the 7 Sleepers from Ephesos, undisputably the 'Greatest Wonder of God', may have been an attempt to accept the missing times.
Who were these protagonists? What was their motivation? How could they do it? What were the consequences?
C14 Calibration - amended!
A brief summary without physics and math:
- The half-time of 14C can be determined quite accurately in the lab.
- To use the 14C decay for dating, atmospheric variations over time must be known.
- IntCal -calibration juxtaposes 14C measurements and dendrochronological age.
- Base for the radiocarbon age '0' is the year 1950 ('presence').
- This base is defined indirectly referring to the age 130 before present <> 1820 CE.
- However, analysis of Sequoia data over two millennia results in 64 BP <> 1886 CE.
- Correlations measured by L.-A. Larsson show a hiatus against Roman wood samples (328 <?> 546 CE).
- The 'well-known' age of Roman samples has led to the assumption of a lower 14C level over antiquity.
- This implicit recalibration adds some 300 years to the measuered radiocarbon age value.
- As a consequence, the slope of the 'Dendro-age' for antiquity will be reduced by 15%.
- A comparison against the Sulphate of Ice-cores confirms a deviation of 15% -290 years.
- With a correction of base-year and hiatus, IntCal data will produce adequate radiocarbon age values.[more in the PDF...]
60 solar eclipse reports disprove traditional Chronology:
- If the CE-date calculated traditionally for a solar eclipse record were correct, a deviating coverage (or the location) reported must necessarily be inaccurate. A specified location on Earth will see totality or annularity typically only once within 140 years. For an accidental match within a span of 295-305 years after the traditional date, the chance will be 1 : 14.
- 300 years minus 46 days after the correctly calculated date another eclipse may occur. If it shows the coverage mentioned in the report, this could only happen by sheer coincidence.
- Otherwise, if the coverage and location of a solar eclipse were reported accurately, then the retro-calculated CE-date cannot be correct, when astronomical computations yield a significantly deviating coverage value.
- Besides: If the CE-dates were determined correctly, this would imply that most eye-witness reports of total solar eclipses did not survive until our times. Unlikely that these awesome events were not recorded. Unlikely that just those records were lost – in contrast to many 'obviously incorrect' reports on explicitly total eclipses, where, accidentally, the totality zone overlapped with the real path of a total solar eclipse 300 years later!
- The probability for more than 60 such events is close to zero.
Traditional chronology and astronomical retro-calculation stand in conflict: They mutually exclude each other!
Research about the irregular Chronology
incorruptible jewish year-count
Today we live in the year 5771 of the Jewish World Era. This is equivalent to our year 2011 CE. The year 1 JWE, therefore, corresponds to our year 3761 BCE. Rabbi Hillel, the originator of the jewish calendar, wrote his texts around 4116 JWE, what complies with the year 359 CE and matches with the records of history. The year numbers given by Hillel and the dates of jewish tradition referring to these, must therefore be correct! [mehr...]
The enforced Millennium – no way to ignore Charlemagne!
Early in the year 1000 CE the Emperor Otto III. visited Aachen. There he uncovered the relics of his ancester Càrolus, who had passed away 186 years before. Otto removed the burial objects and extracted a tooth from the skull. He replaced the missing nose of the dead by a gold sheet, before he left the crypt. What was the intention behind this ghoulish spectacle? It did generate 'evidence' for the newly set year-count scheme! [more...]
A letter written by Leo of Vercelli
»Sub caesaris potentia purgat papa secula« 'On the Emperor's order, the Pope will purge the centuries'. Here we have the written evidence for the clandestine reform of the year-count, laid down by the protagonists... [mehr...]
Pontificates of the early middle-ages
Can the duplicate year-count be identified within the traditional sequence of the roman popes? Were these doubled, too? The records about these early leaders of the Church are rather poor... [mehr...]
and written records